If the weather forecasters are right, voters in Spain will elect the 15th Cortes Generales, or national parliament, this Sunday in temperatures approaching 40 degrees celsius.

Turnout is always a factor in elections. Last time out, in 2019, a little under 70 per cent of Spanish voters went to the polls, meaning that nearly three in ten of those eligible couldn’t be bothered to register their choice, if indeed they had made one. And that was in November. This time round, it is easy to imagine elderly Spaniards or those with young children or who live in especially torrid parts of the country opting to stay home and turn up their ceiling fans.