“We have moved from a post-war to a pre-war world,” according to defence secretary Grant Shapps, in an attempt to awaken defaulting NATO member states to a recognition of their responsibilities, on the 75th anniversary of the alliance’s foundation. Such exhortations are not fruitless: this year it is estimated that 18 NATO members will spend the required 2 per cent of GDP on defence, up from just three countries 10 years ago. This year, the members of the alliance are expected to spend collectively a total of $380bn on defence.